References to the Holy Spirit appear throughout Acts, for example Acts 1:5 and 8 stating towards the beginning: "For … Sebastian Brock in The Holy Spirit as feminine in early Syriac literature, examines the use of the feminine pronoun for the Holy Spirit in Syriac, and how this purely grammatical feature might have affected its role. Another distinctive feature in Syriac Christian literature concerns the positive use of feminine images in liturgy and theology. What then are the early sources that are at our disposal? Often Syriac writers employed images of the Spirit as woman, reflecting a theological inclusiveness in gender that has contributed to contemporary discussions of trinitarian language. (4) Bulgakov has said … Because of that, ‘it’ would be a better choice as he or she tend to contradict each other. The Holy Spirit is “feminine” and is referred to as a “she” in almost all early Syriac Christian writings. The grammatically feminine aspect is strictly an Aramaic feature, it is not the case in Greek. This was not a concrete … The elegance of his poetry and the beauty of his style earned him the epithet “Harp of the Holy Spirit.” He employed two poetic forms, one for spoken speech in metrical form, whether a narrative or didactic epic, the other a more artful composition in strophes to be sung by a choir or double choir. van Oort, Johannes, ''The Holy Spirit as Feminine: Early Christian … Rom. THE MAGI IN SYRIAC TRADITION 815 More non-canonical traditions on the Magi are contained in the Cave of Treasures (MÇÿarrath gazz7), an apocryphon that retraces the historia sacra of the Old Testament and combines it with that of the … The spirit talks sometimes with a masculine and sometimes with a feminine voice; the word ruac ... Acts presents the Holy Spirit as the "life principle" of the early Church and provides five separate and dramatic instances of its outpouring on believers in 2:1–4, 4:28–31, 8:15–17, 10:44 and 19:6. "Reading between the Lines: Sarah and the Sacrifice of Isaac (Gen. The present article discusses the main proof texts, ranging from the ‘Gospel according to the Hebrews’ to a number of testimonies from the second century. The oldest patristic testimonies to this concept are the texts from Origen and Jerome quoted above. The Spiritual World Vision of St Ephrem, Rome, 1985, 143, and idem, The Holy Spirit as Feminine in Early Syriac Literature, in: After Eve. These ancient Christians remind us that God is not a man (i.e. This is, in part, because the Syriac word for “spirit” is a “feminine” word. -----. HOLY SPIRIT IS FEMININE – SHEKHINAH The Holy Spirit (Ruach Ha-Kadosh) is the manifested Glory of God all throughout the Old Testament and is seen after the outpouring of Holy Fire on Pentecost. 20 Cf. In After Eve: Women, Theology and the Christian Tradition (ed. Three archaic prayers over the baptismal oil 1. The Holy Spirit as feminine: Early Christian testimonies and their interpretation @article{Oort2016TheHS, title={The Holy Spirit as feminine: Early Christian testimonies and their interpretation}, author={J. Oort}, journal={Hts Teologiese Studies-theological Studies}, year={2016}, volume={72}, pages={6} } J. Oort; Published 2016; Philosophy; Hts Teologiese Studies-theological Studies; This research is part of the … by J. M. Soskice, (Women and Religion Series), London 1990, pp. Janet Martin Soskice; Women and Religion; London: Collins Marshall Pickering, 1990) 73-88. The Holy Spirit as Feminine in Early Syriac Literature / Sebastian Brock. In Syriac literature prior to the year 400, the Holy Spirit was most often understood to be feminine, referred to as “She”, because the noun for spirit, ruha, is grammatically feminine in Syriac (related to the Hebrew ruah), However, early Syriac writers did not present the Spirit as a feminine being, distinct from though not necessarily in opposition to a male God. The works of St. Ephraem Syrus (4th century) stood at the beginning of Syrian literature and were never surpassed by any later author.The elegance of his poetry and the beauty of his style earned him the epithet “Harp of the Holy Spirit.” He employed two poetic forms, one for spoken speech in metrical form, whether a narrative or didactic epic, the other a more artful composition in strophes to be sung by a … ("Feminine Imagery for the Divine: … The word for ‘spirit’ in Syriac, ruho (which is also the word for ‘wind’), is grammatically feminine. S. Brock, ‘The Holy Spirit as feminine in early Syriac literature,’ [in:] After Eve, ed. We are a monastic community and intentional Orthodox Christian community. with a view to bring out the early Syriac theology of the Holy Spirit. He outlines the history of different translations and notes how the feminine usage changed. 13:14 Put on our Lord Jesus Christ. Janet Martin Soskice, London, The most exhaustive research on the early Syrian tradition in the West is Catholic scholar, Robert Murray; (3) in the Eastern Church it is Sebastian Brock. ‘Holy Spirit’ is still treated grammatica lly as feminine, whereas in later texts ruHa, when referring to the Holy Spirit, is regularly treated as a masculine; to bring out this feature the translation of St Ephrem below uses ‘she’ etc. In the Syriac tradition, from which we get the Maronites, Chaldean Catholics, and Syriac Catholics, the Holy Spirit is often referred to as “she” and is portrayed as playing a strong motherly role. The most notable Syriac poet after the split between eastern and western Syrian Christianity was Narsai (d. c. 503), a … The word for ‘spirit’ in Syriac, ruho (which is also the word for ‘wind’), is grammatically feminine. What are some stereotypical … Concerning the Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church believes the Church is the body of true believers in Christ, and that the Head of the Church is Our Lord God Jesus Christ. "The Holy Spirit as Feminine in Early Syriac Literature." The fathers of the Syriac church at least sometimes spoke of the Spirit as Mother. Kateusz cites scholars of the early Syrian church such as Sebastian Brock, who basing their findings on their studies of the ancient baptism liturgy and of the other ch literature of Syriac church during its first four centuries, believe that in this time period the Holy Spirit was almost always envisioned as feminine. 'The Wings of the Spirit': Exploring Feminine Symbolism in Early Pneumatology. In the early stages of modern scholarly studies, it was believed that some examples of the long-standing Greek practice of labeling Aramaic as "Syrian/Syriac", that are found in the "Cave of Treasures", can be attributed to Ephrem, but later scholarly analyses have shown that the work in question was written much later (c. 600) by an unknown author, thus also showing that Ephrem's original works still belonged to … While the Hebrew word for spirit is feminine and the Greek word for spirit is neuter, those designations, of themselves, do not tell us sex or if we would use He, She, or It in English. The early church mostly spoke Greek or Latin, ... as in Hebrew). The Syriac language (/ ˈ s ɪr i æ k /; Classical Syriac: ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ‎ / Leššānā Suryāyā, Leshono Suryoyo), also known as Syriac Aramaic (Syrian Aramaic, Syro-Aramaic) and Classical Syriac (in its literary and liturgical form), is an Aramaic language that emerged during the first century AD from a local Aramaic dialect that was spoken in the ancient region of Osroene, centered in the city of Edessa.During the … Much depends on the language we speak (the “culture” in which we live). Keywords: I-III CE, IV-VII CE, Holy Spirit, gender, feminine. February 2016; HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 72(1) DOI: 10.4102/hts.v72i1.3225. Kateusz cites scholars of the early Syrian church such as Sebastian Brock, who basing their findings on their studies of the ancient baptism liturgy and of the other ch literature of Syriac church during its first four centuries, believe that in this time period the Holy Spirit was almost always envisioned as feminine. From the fifth century onwards a revulsion against the idea of the Holy Spirit as mother must … The ancient tradition was, in particular, kept alive in East and West Syria, up to and including the fourth century Makarios and/or Symeon, who even influenced … How did the early Syriac tradition live and express a very essential aspect of Christian Trinitarian faith, namely the … What is just as interesting is the way the Spirit is described in the New Testament. No the God in whose image we are created is reflected in both maleness and femaleness. The … male) and that males are more in the image of God than females. 74–75 (73–88). (2) As we trace the development of pneumatology from the early Syriac fathers to the author of the Odes of Solomon, a consistent finding scholars have noted is the frequent use of the feminine gender in descriptions of the Holy Spirit. The … Wisdom is equated with the Holy Spirit and both are considered to be feminine. John 15:19 You do not belong to the world. 22)." The Holy Spirit is equal with the Father and the Son. Summary: The book explores the rich symbolism of the Holy Spirit as a mother bird with hovering wings within early Syriac sacramental … In early Aramaic-Christian literature, the Holy Spirit is treated grammatically in the feminine, though later writings typically refer to it in the masculine. We seek to live the example of Christ and serve all our neighbors. 3 In essence, both traditions express the same concept. We are a multi-cultural and multi-ethnic worshiping … 5:3 Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the Kingdom of heaven. St. Mary the Protectress Syriac Orthodox Community is located in Plymouth, Indiana. Concerning the Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church believes the Church is the body of true believers in Christ, and that the Head of the Church is Our Lord God Jesus Christ. A Reassessment of a Key Metaphor in the Spiritual Teachings of the 'Macarian Homilies' in the Light of Early Syriac Christian Tradition. Mark 10:21 (Syriac), etc "If you would be perfect, go sell what you possess, and take up your cross and follow me. Series: ESWTR Studies in Religion, 1. author: Hopkins J.M. The rabbis used the term shekhinah in reference to the glory of God filling the temple (2 Chronicles 7:1), his presence at the cloud (Exodus 14:19; 1 Kings 8:10–13), and his dwelling in the mountain ( Psalm 68:16 … The word for ‘spirit’ in Syriac, ruho (which is also the word for ‘wind’), is grammatically feminine. Luke 6:20 Blessed are the poor, for yours is the Kingdom of heaven. Holy Spirit is referred to with the feminine pronoun in almost all early Syriac writings, though later writings refer to it in the masculine.) When one turns into the early Syriac period in search of a theology of the Holy Spirit, the primary difficulty that is met with is the lack of any proper treatise on the Holy Spirit. A Study in Early Syriac Tradition, London, 1975, esp. Brock, Sebastian P., ''The Holy Spirit as Feminine in Early Syriac Literature'', Pages 73-88 in After Eve: Women, Theology and the Christian ... Takeda, Fumihiko F., ''The Holy Spirit as Feminine in the Early Syriac Christian Tradition'', Theological Studies in Japan 47 (2008): 59-86. (Note. The word for ‘spirit’ in Syriac, ruho (which is also the word for ‘wind’), is grammatically feminine. But such great saints as Ephrem (a Doctor of the Church) and Jacob of Sarug sure seemed to enjoy playing up the feminine qualities of … Sebastian Brock, The Luminous Eye. Posted by admin on Mar 27, 2018 in Library | Comments Off on The Holy Spirit as Feminine in Early Syriac Literature / Sebastian Brock Acts of Thomas, section 121: Holy oil for anointing has been given to us and the Hidden Mystery of the Cross which has appeared in it, 1 H here … 142-150.312-330; cf. 2 Hence one understands how in early Christian tradition Christ is so often considered to be the child of mother Sophia or the Holy Spirit. Women, Theology and the Christian Tradition, ed. An early Syriac eucharistic liturgy calls upon God as both Father and Mother to … Examples of this early Aramaic literature include the Odes of Solomon, Ephrem (cf., (Hymns on Virginity) and others. And in Syria, where for four hundred years the word Holy Spirit was ruha, a feminine word derived from the Hebrew ruach, and where the Holy Spirit was described as Mother, complementing the parental imagery of Father and Son in the Trinity, the association of feminine language with heresy led authors to assign masculine gender to the word—grammatical nonsense but evidence of the theological desire to … The earliest Christians – all of whom were Jews – spoke of the Holy Spirit as a feminine figure. Holy Spirit is referred to with the feminine pronoun in almost all early Syriac writings, though later writings refer to it in the masculine.) They referred to the “womb of the Spirit” in their baptismal liturgy, as well as made other feminine references to the Spirit. We believe that you can pray to end hunger, but it is not a true prayer unless you also feed those who are hungry. The Spirit in the NT. Holy Spirit is referred to with the feminine pronoun in almost all early Syriac writings, though later writings refer to it in the masculine.) Kateusz cites scholars of the early Syrian church such as Sebastian Brock, who basing their findings on their studies of the ancient baptism liturgy and of the other ch literature of Syriac church during its first four centuries, believe that in this time period the Holy Spirit was almost always envisioned as feminine. Matt. It … The Holy Spirit as feminine: Early Christian testimonies and their interpretation . Plus, realize that early Christians simply did NOT believe that the Holy Spirit was a person and was not referred to as “He.” Nor precisely … Concerning the Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church believes the Church is the body of true believers in Christ, and that the Head of the Church is Our Lord God Jesus Christ. 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