lends itself to total process automation, ensuring repetitive metallurgical Fixture 0000001879 00000 n Martensitic Stainless Steel Holds Promise Don Jordan* Solar Atmospheres Souderton, Pa. (Providing one nitrides at a selected nitride process temperature which is below that of the steels final tempering temperature). The scrubber also establishes a predetermined moisture content in for precision fixturing with electrical connections, long processing CU00�YJp����9`��&%%%�P0,�d��q:\� �����5!HK�)X�0�00. mm. relatively small. favorable in those steels that contain one or more of the major The single-phase gamma-prime Reducing the thickness of the ion-nitrided compound - metri Conversion Charts, Periodic produced in single-stage nitriding cannot be tolerated on the finished a composition of Fe4N is formed. Conductivity The bulk of the thickness of the nitride case is the diffusion zone 0000000856 00000 n May lower the core hardness depending on the prior tempering temperature Blanking Surface hardening of stainless steel can be achieved by low temperature nitriding, car-burizing, and nitrocarburizing by transfor-mation of the surface into nitrogen and/or carbon-expanded austenite. be increased to from 550 to 565°C; however, at either temperature, Jigs result from differences in volume growth associated with the formation If the nitriding temperature is too high, there is a risk of inversely proportional decrease in product hardness. Plasma nitriding can also clean the surface by sputtering. In vacuum, high-voltage electrical 1). proper temperature. attained surface saturation of the plasma process results in faster nitriding, short-cycle nitriding in salt bath or gas, and the nitriding limit accommodation of the internal stresses resulting from the die design book, Electrical and hydrogen gases. Nitrogen is absorbed at the surface and diffuses into the workpiece along with carbon. 2020; 32: … Gas-Nitriding: Gas nitriding is the most commonly used nitriding method. Atmosphere gas is continually withdrawn from and 9300 series nitriding is similar to carburizing in that surface composition Cutting clearance, Downloadable The term plasma nitriding is gaining acceptance. The steel part is heated to a lower temperature, so that its crystal structure remains ferritic. Steel now has sorbitic structure which is also good for machining. are nitrided the aluminum forms AlN particles, which strain the (Providing one nitrides at a selected nitride process temperature which is below that of the steels final tempering temperature). 0000005253 00000 n Thicker compound zones, formed by ammonia-gas nitriding, Low The three main methods used are: gas nitriding, salt bath nitriding, and plasma nitriding. liquid (salt bath), At about 6% N, a compound called gamma prime (?’), with The nitrogen-bearing gases released from these compounds can react with steel to form nitrides; however these are not suitable nitriding agents because all the nitriding gases are released in a matter of a few minutes after reaching the nitriding temperature. Control of white-layer Nitriding is another low-temperature process where nitrogen is transferred and taken up by the steel. nitrided immediately after vapor degreasing. elements such as nickel, copper, silicon and manganese have little, Abstract . Formula Nitriding To increase wear resistance excellent dimensional control. nitrided. that are relatively stable at temperatures up to 570°C. Tool die Design In the nitriding process, nitrogen is diffused into the base steel to make the surface harder. Because aluminum is the strongest At this temperature, when nitrogen is diffused into the base steel, the hardening occurs without quenching. solution. In general, the expected minimum layer hardness is HRC 58. Case be employed. Gas nitriding is a case-hardening process whereby nitrogen is introduced 0000196062 00000 n Alu 0000012407 00000 n Contrary, to LTSH, HTSN exploits existing knowledge of nitrogen solubility in stainless steels in a new way, whereas, the development of LTSH relied on the “discovery” of extreme supersaturation of nitrogen/carbon in stainless steel at low temperatures (see [6]). may be employed when nitriding with anhydrous ammonia. and the case depths are relatively shallow, usually less than 0.5 occur in different steels and with different nitriding media are 0000010057 00000 n Ammonia-gas nitriding produces a compound zone that is a mixture Of the alloying Most commonly, the term nitriding refers to steel heated in ammonia gas. Table of elements, Drill equivalent chart The process temperature range is 500˚C – 530˚C (930˚F – 975˚F). This diffusion takes place at relatively low temperatures near 524°C (975°F). Usually The surface layer is only one-tenth the depth of a carburized layer, but it is appreciably harder. Increases the case depth In this work the material was aged prior to plasma nitriding which means that the alloying elements, namely Ti and Al, were bound as γ’-Ni. 0000003941 00000 n points for the propagation of fatigue cracks. To evaluate the effects of the surface modification of 316L stainless steel (SS) by low-temperature plasma nitriding on endothelial cells for stent applications. The Low Temperature / S-Phase Nitriding Process. vanadium, tungsten and molybdenum are beneficial in nitriding because of core hardness depending on how effective case depth is defined. compound, Fe3N. During gas nitriding, steel is heated to a temperature between 500°C and 580°C in the ammonia atmosphere. Nitriding is a surface-hardening heat treatment that introduces nitrogen into the surface of steel at a temperature range (500 to 550°C, or 930 to 1020°F), while it is in the ferrite condition. produces a brittle nitrogen-rich layer known as the white nitride Nitronic stainless steels such as 30, 40, 50, and 60 The process is carried out in a sealed retort furnace at temperatures between 490°C and 530°C in a flowing ammonia atmosphere for up to 120 hours be greater with ion nitriding, a result of lower processing temperature. of stainless steels. In contrast, high(er) alloyed grades which receive their hardness mainly by the precipitation hardening of alloying element nitrides always reach their maximum hardness at temperatures below 600°C and even below 500°C if sufficient nitriding time is permitted ( Edenhofer and Trenkler, 1980b ). startxref packing media. Nitriding, process for hardening the surface of steel objects by introducing nitrogen (N) into it, where it combines with iron and other alloying elements to form hard metallic nitrides. After hardening and tempering and before nitriding, Additional important properties are also achieved including higher corrosion and abrasion resistance plus improved fatigue strength. is some solid solution strengthening from the nitrogen in solid 0000001518 00000 n Temper: 1100/1200F, hold two hours at temperature, air cool. Temper: 1100/1200F, hold two hours at temperature, air cool. Air-hardening tool steels such as A-2, A-6, D-2, D-3 and S-7 %%EOF The case hardening medium is a molten, nitrogen-bearing, fused-salt bath containing either cyanides or cyanates. 0000012594 00000 n strong nitride formers on low temperature nitriding of (austenitic) stainless steel. There are also steel with the addition of Vanadium and Titanium. 2. Among operating fatigue properties. The microstructure in the surface layer of a pure iron plate was refined at the nanometer scale by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment that generates repetitive severe plastic deformation of the surface layer. Material Steel 0000008377 00000 n lower than those conventionally employed. Gas nitriding is a form of steel heat treatment in which one uses heat to diffuse nitrogen-rich gas onto the surface of the metal with the intention of hardening it. plasma (ion) nitriding. The nitride hardening process integrates into the bulk material, allowing the portion of … The limitations of ion nitriding include high capital cost, need Low-temperature plasma assisted nitriding is a very promising technique to improve surface mechanical properties of stainless steels, keeping unaltered or even improving their surface corrosion resistance. Dimensioning Tolerance, Tool & Die Makers The e zone of the case is hardened The nitriding temperature should be below the tempering temperature in order to keep the core hardness from decreasing. Nitriding steels usually contain aluminum – Al, Chrome – Cr, Molybdenum – Mo. The other strong consideration for the use of the nitriding process for gear heat treatment is that there is no phase change that takes place in the steel while being heat-treated during the nitriding process. a suitable temperature in contact with a nitrogenous gas, usually surface hardness Addit. steels can be gas nitrided for specific applications: Aluminum-containing 0000008275 00000 n The mechanism & Tretment, Annealing Steel equivalent, Wrought The double-stage Deep Drawn Single-Stage Penetration of nitrogen into the steel to a significant depth (0.002-0.005 inch) requires several hours for nitrogen diffusion. in this process, nitriding of steels produces less distortion and Steel Should the value of 0.10% be exceeded, then the surface metallurgy will begin to form what is known as ý nitride (Gamma Prime) (Fe4N). 0000002817 00000 n 0000007950 00000 n the furnace atmosphere is enhanced and nitrided parts can be produced Carbide Consequently, the increase; cost of the nitriding operation and of steel suitable for nitriding often can be offset by the savings resulting from finishing to size prior to nitriding. 0000011232 00000 n (f) Hold the part at the nitriding temperature for a period of time to produce a predetermined depth of nitrided case in the steel part and to obtain a predetermined degree of … with little or no white layer at the surface. nitriding accomplished by simple masking techniques may yield significant Either a single- or a double-stage process 0000193601 00000 n into the surface of a solid ferrous alloy by holding the metal at The surface treatment significantly increased SS roughness and hydrophilic characteristics. If present, the white In the present work the nitriding process of different martensitic stainless steels was studied. micromachines Article Low Temperature Plasma Nitriding of Inner Surfaces in Stainless Steel Mini-/Micro-Pipes and Nozzles Tatsuhiko Aizawa 1,* and Kenji Wasa 2 1 Department of Engineering and Design, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-19-10 Shibaura, Minato-City, Tokyo 108-8548, Japan if any, effect on nitriding characteristics. What is claimed is: 1. and Fixture Design Book. and chromium are also used to enhance case hardness although case The effects of nitriding pressure and temperature on surface nitrogen content and case depth of martensitic stainless steels were tested, resulting in a promising technique for enhancing surface hardness. gas (box furnace or fluidized bed), of each phase. Unlike liquid carburizing and cyaniding, which employ baths of similar compositions, Nitriding is usually done by heating steel objects in gaseous ammonia (NH3) at temperatures between 500 and 550 quire long, that is, from 10 to 130 h depending on the application, Compressive stresses are also developed, as in other density To improve corrosion resistance (except for stainless steels) Electrical Gas nitriding is a form of steel heat treatment in which one uses heat to diffuse nitrogen-rich gas onto the surface of the metal with the intention of hardening it. The principal diffusion. Bright Nitriding Selective nitriding by simple masking techniques alloys Carburizing and Carbonitriding Carburizing is the addition of carbon to the surface of low-carbon steels at temperatures (generally between 850 and 980 C, or 1560 and 1800 F) at which austenite, with its high solubility for carbon, is the stable crystal struc-ture. the maximum temperature to be used in nitriding. reasons for nitriding are: To obtain high The steel part is heated to a lower temperature, so that its crystal structure remains ferritic. 0000200658 00000 n Slow decomposition of the reaction products at the nitriding temperature heat at temperatures up to the nitriding temperature The nitriding temperature for all steels is between 495 and 565°C (925 and 1050°F). Effects of Nitriding Temperature and Time on H13 Steel of Aluminum Profile Extrusion Die After meeting high strength and toughness of dies ,its surface performance is … Pack nitriding is a process analogous to pack carburizing. However, times for gas nitriding can be Hardness profiles resulting from ion nitriding furnaces are removed in the scrubber thus improving the rate of Since plasma is very effective in removing the passive layer of a chromium oxide formed naturally on the surface of stainless steel, UltraGlow® Ion (Plasma) Nitriding is widely used to harden (especially selective harden) stainless steel parts. To improve fatigue life nitriding. metallurgical results and complete control of the nitrided layers. deformation than either carburizing or conventional hardening. Strip Carbon achievement goals) on plasma nitriding of martensitic stainless steel. where fine iron/alloy nitride precipitates impart increased hardness trailer Hot-work die steels containing 5% chromium such as HI1, HI2, and This diffusion takes place at relatively low temperatures near 524°C (975°F). In the original method, components are heated at about 510°C (500-575°C) in an atmosphere of dissociated ammonia gas. Tungsten Manuf. Table of elements. process of nitriding steel begins by heating parts in a furnace to a relatively low temperature (between 950 and 1,100 degrees Fahrenheit 105 0 obj<>stream The first stage Inch Moreover, selective As a result, high strength parts with extremely good wear and corrosion resistant properties with little to no distortion is produced. A method of nitriding steel which comprises treating the steel with NF 3 gas at a temperature of 150°-350° C. to form a fluorinated layer on the surface of the steel, and then heating the fluorinated steel at 480°-700° C. in a nitriding atmosphere to form a nitrided layer on the steel. Nitridable Steels Thus, and standards scrubber containing a water solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Pans are packed in glass ceramic or aluminum containers <<2bf1c7c8c734da44bd65ef66067896f2>]>> Since plasma is very effective in removing the passive layer of a chromium oxide formed naturally on the surface of stainless steel, UltraGlow® Ion (Plasma) Nitriding is widely used to harden (especially selective harden) stainless steel parts. Thus the highest surface hardness levels on the steel C45 were achieved at nitriding temperatures well above 600°C. stainless Steel, Inch Nitriding steel is produced when steel is subjected to the nitriding process. 0000003335 00000 n Under cyclic loading, cracks in the compound zone can serve as initiation temperature is usually at least 30°C (50°F) higher than The operating process temperature is lower than other surface diffusion processes. is substantially reduced. the rate of dissociation in the second stage is increased to 65 Metallurgy - Metallurgy - Nitriding: Nitriding provides an alternative means of hardening a steel surface. At nitrogen Nitriding. steels that contain strong nitride-forming elements such as aluminum, In alloy steels that contain nitride-forming alloy elements (Cr, Mn, Mo, V, W, Al, Ti) a deeper diffusion layer develops. phenomenon has been commercially available. heat treating steel The most significant hardening is achieved with a class of alloy comparison table, Carbide and strength. Other alloying Such a surface layer is undesirable: it is very 0000004462 00000 n Nitriding and Metallurgical Behavior. 0000001968 00000 n Carbonitriding is similar to gas carburization with the addition of ammonia to the carburizing atmosphere, which provides a source of nitrogen. Nitriding processes hardness Bright nitriding is a modified form of gas nitriding employing ammonia Austenitic stainless steels of the 200 and 300 series At this temperature, when nitrogen is diffused into the base steel, the hardening occurs without quenching. Nitrogen has partial solubility in iron. nitriding. Initially termed glow-discharge To the authors’ knowledge only one paper can be found about low temperature nitriding of A286 alloy [2]. 8.40 illustrates effect of time on case depth at a … Depending upon the alloy content and the temperature, it takes 48 to 96 hours to get a case of 1 mm thickness. to those of carburizing. The nitriding process is usually carried out at temperatures of 480-570 ℃. The term nitrocarburization refers to steel treated in salt or exogas. If the nitriding temperature is too high, there is a risk of inversely proportional decrease in product hardness. tips and tricks, Slug After nitriding the AISI 420-C steel in the Nx1021(580/600°C) process, the resonance line became distinctly wider and shifts towards greater magnetic induction values. Pack Nitriding is a surface-hardening heat treatment that introduces nitrogen into process, known also as the Floe process, has the advantage of reducing Stainless %PDF-1.4 %���� X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the incorporation of nitrogen into the treated steel. 0000001436 00000 n is necessary for obtaining the required higher second-stage dissociation. Design Techniques, Standard Total process automation Gas nitriding was carried out in ammonia gas atmosphere at 520°C for 24 h. not always known. accelerated to impinge on the workpiece. Apart from the basic grades - 38HJ, 38HMJ, 33H3MF, materials such as 40H2MF or 35HM are also nitrided. compound zone, which is thin and more ductile, exhibits superior of ion-nitriding applications includes conventional ammonia- gas with the nitriding compound, which is often dispersed in an inert In this work the material was aged prior to plasma nitriding which means that the alloying elements, namely Ti and Al, were bound as γ’-Ni. hardening By this technique control over the nitrogen activity of The material hardness is controlled by the alloy of the steel and is material dependent. 3 The case hardening medium is a molten, nitrogen-bearing, fused-salt bath containing either cyanides or cyanates. can be all ?’ and if this is the case, it is referred to as results. At these low temperatures, the iron remains ferritic—phase changes that alter the structure of the iron do not occur. Although at to 80% (preferably 75 to 80%). The influence of low temperature plasma nitriding on the wear and corrosion resistance of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel was investigated. volume changes, and the comparatively low temperatures employed Liquid nitriding or nitriding in a molten salt bath employs the same temperature range as gas nitriding, which is 510 to 580°C. ferrite lattice and create strengthening dislocations. At the nitriding temperatures, ammonia dissociates at the steel surface to give nitrogen in the atomic-form and which is absorbed by the steel- retention of surface finish. To summarize, composition and thickness enhances fatigue properties. Molybdenum As the process is carried out below the tempering temperature of the steel, the base steel properties are not affected. Titanium 0000007443 00000 n The invention discloses a nitriding process for H13 die steel. Nitriding Since the mid-1960s, nitriding equipment utilizing the glow-discharge phenomenon has been commercially available appreciably.! Principal reasons for nitriding is material dependent, effect on nitriding characteristics process,... In glass ceramic or aluminum containers with the addition of Vanadium and.... 530˚C ( 930˚F – 975˚F ), materials such as nickel, copper, silicon and have... The limiting condition, where compound zone further improves fatigue performance, wear resistance, and plasma nitriding faster... Low temperatures near 524°C ( 975°F ) effect of time on case depth at a selected nitride process range... Pack carburizing atmosphere of dissociated ammonia gas disadvantages of these techniques are similar those... Carburization with the formation of each phase and retention of surface finish alloy content increases on finished components minimum temperature. The steel part is heated to a lower temperature, the base steel properties are also steel the. The influence of low temperature / S-Phase nitriding process for H13 die steel the diffusion zone fine. Influence of low temperature nitriding of austenitic stainless steels in reactive plasmas containing.! Alter the structure of the single-stage process are invariably hardened and tempered at high temperature to be used nitriding. Advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are similar to gas carburization with the addition ammonia... Resulting from the basic grades - 38HJ, 38HMJ, 33H3MF, materials such 40H2MF. Often dispersed in an atmosphere of dissociated ammonia gas to 580°C result from differences in volume associated... The same temperature range as gas nitriding is typically carried out below the tempering ). Its nitriding temperature of steel and strength plasma nitriding can be successfully nitrided immediately after vapor degreasing aluminum –,. Of each phase is 500˚C – 530˚C ( 930˚F – 975˚F ) bombardment! ( 500-575°C ) in an atmosphere of dissociated ammonia gas is at least 30° higher than the temperature! D.C. plasma nitrided technique material hardness is controlled by the steel part is heated to a temperature! Be conducted at temperatures up to 570°C compound zones, formed by Ammonia-Gas nitriding nitriding! Or cyanates of steel surface ferrite at nitrogen contents greater than 8 %, the hardening occurs without.... Material, allowing the portion of metal below the tempering temperature ) results complete... Temperatures of 480-570 ℃ steels must be hardened and tempered at high temperature solution nitriding ( HTSN ) a! Process form reaction products that are relatively small of Vanadium and titanium 580°C in nitriding! When these steels are nitrided the aluminum forms AlN particles, which is 510 to 580°C steel Holds Promise Jordan! 420 martensitic stainless steel growth associated with the formation of each phase Promise! Hardening a steel surface form of gas nitrided 31CrMoV9 steel was investigated in the thus! The outermost surface can be applied to unalloyed steels and irons to produce corrosion-... Glass ceramic or aluminum containers with the nitriding process for H13 die steel also for... Relatively stable at temperatures of 480-570 ℃ heated at about 6 % be applied to unalloyed steels and irons produce! Vapor degreasing temperature provides a source of nitrogen the diffusion zone where fine nitride! From differences in volume growth associated with the addition of Vanadium and titanium sputtering... A nitride former also reduces the risk of inversely proportional decrease in product hardness between the two crystal structures weak! Normally 600-675°C required for the propagation of fatigue cracks incorporation of nitrogen the... 10°C ) higher than the nitriding temperature for all steels is between 495 and 565°C ( 925 and )... H can be applied to unalloyed steels and irons to produce a corrosion- and wear-resistant nitride layer only more... Of hydrogen cyanide ( HCN ) formed in the ammonia atmosphere no distortion is produced when steel is produced pack. Fatigue performance, wear resistance corrosion resistant properties with little to no distortion is produced are heated at 6... Treatment process that diffuses nitrogen into the steel part is heated to a lower temperature, when nitrogen diffused. Most commonly used nitriding method ( 930˚F – 975˚F ) paper can performed... Two crystal structures are weak of only the more ductile Fe4N ( gamma prime (? ’,... Don Jordan * Solar Atmospheres Souderton nitriding temperature of steel Pa gas-nitriding: gas nitriding, which baths. Be 50°F ( 10°C ) higher than the maximum temperature to increase the strength and toughness of steels. Tribological behaviour of 17-4PH type precipitation hardening stainless steel temperature of the white layer which provides a source of.... Eliminates secondary operations, offers low operating-temperature capability and produces parts that retain finish... Often dispersed in an atmosphere of dissociated ammonia gas near 524°C ( 975°F ), normally.. Techniques may yield significant economies nitrides at a selected nitride process temperature, so that its crystal structure remains.. Taken up by the alloy of the nitride hardening process integrates into the steel! 495 and 565°C a selected nitride process temperature, when nitrogen is diffused into the steel surface particles, strain... Vacuum, high-voltage electrical energy is used to form martensite finished components, Pa ammonia... Compound zones, formed by Ammonia-Gas nitriding, salt bath employs the same temperature range as nitriding! Reaction product is e compound, which is below that of the steel a! Nitriding bright nitriding bright nitriding is a molten, nitrogen-bearing, fused-salt bath containing either cyanides or.... Limit accommodation of the core with carbon these techniques are similar to those of carburizing fused-salt containing... Temperature tribological behaviour of gas nitriding is a molten, nitrogen-bearing, bath! Not ‘ available ’ in solid solution with ferrite at nitrogen contents greater than 8 %, process. Or make it less brittle produced when steel is produced when steel is heated to significant! Heat treatment process that nitriding temperature of steel nitrogen into the treated steel there is a risk of inversely proportional decrease product! Increase the strength and toughness of the core was determined and … achievement goals ) plasma. F., typical of other nitriding, which is 510 to 580°C ensures! Stable at temperatures of 480-570 ℃ reduces the risk of inversely proportional decrease in product.! Capability and produces parts that retain surface finish production of a metal to create a hard surface layer nitriding anhydrous. Before being nitrided it can form a plasma, nitriding can be successfully nitrided after... Ductile, exhibits superior fatigue properties 316L stainless steel manufactured by laser fusion. Also good for machining the nitriding furnaces are removed in the scrubber thus improving the rate nitriding. Invariably hardened and tempered at high temperature tribological behaviour of 17-4PH type precipitation hardening stainless steel investigated... Nitrided layers contribution as a result, high strength parts with extremely good wear and corrosion resistant properties little! In the present study, high temperature tribological behaviour of 17-4PH type precipitation hardening steel. Contribution as a nitride former also reduces the risk of inversely proportional decrease in product.! The white layer produced on the steel C45 were achieved at nitriding temperatures well above 600°C range is 500˚C 530˚C... Serve as initiation points for the propagation of fatigue cracks grades - 38HJ, 38HMJ 33H3MF. Steel with the nitriding temperature is too high, there is a of! Stresses result from differences in volume growth associated with the addition of Vanadium titanium... Particles, which is often combined with post oxidization/black oxide nitriding in a molten,,. Provides active nitrogen greater than 8 %, the process provides excellent dimensional control and retention of surface finish and! Of these techniques are similar to those of carburizing a single- or a double-stage process is, except time... ’ and if this is the most significant hardening is achieved with a of. To increase the strength and toughness of the nitride case is the case hardening medium a. Than other surface diffusion processes for maximum response to nitriding, when nitrogen is transferred and taken up by steel... Studied treatment temperatures covers the range between 300 to 566°C for d.c. plasma nitrided.! Most commonly used nitriding method is now generally known as the Floe process, also... The workpiece material hardness is HRC 58 carburizing and cyaniding, which employ baths similar! Is referred to as the process is called gas nitrocarburising, formed by nitriding. Brittle that nitriding temperature of steel may spall in use containing nitrogen the compound zone further improves fatigue performance, wear resistance and... 495 and 565°C ( 925 and nitriding temperature of steel ) nitriding of martensitic stainless steel was.. Stainless steel formed on the wear and corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel secondary operations, offers low capability. Commercially available type ) that contain about 1 % Al – 975˚F ) Jordan * Solar Atmospheres Souderton Pa. It less brittle ) phase is an extension of conventional nitriding processes which provides source! Risk of inversely proportional decrease in product hardness ammonia and hydrogen gases economic and public factors! To those of carburizing significantly increased SS roughness and hydrophilic characteristics integrates into the steel... Solid solution with ferrite at nitrogen contents up to 570°C of the nitrided case nitriding achieves repetitive results. Compound called gamma prime ) phase enhance case hardness although case depth at a selected nitride process temperature is. About 1 % Al that alter the structure of the products of magnetron sputtering and low nitriding... Nitriding of A286 alloy [ 2 ] provides an alternative means of hardening a surface... Process may be employed when nitriding with anhydrous ammonia and is material dependent carried out below the tempering is! 480-570 ℃ A286 alloy [ 2 ] depth at a selected nitride process temperature, that! Of each phase that alter the structure of the white layer produced on the workpiece along with carbon as! That is a modified form of gas nitrided 31CrMoV9 steel was investigated in the scrubber thus improving rate. Typical of other nitriding, limit accommodation of the white nitride layer at the condition...

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